Torrent Search

I added a few more russian friends to the torrent search.

There is a torrent search mozilla plugin that submits requests over HTTP and the Torrent SLL plugin. You may have to trust the ipduh CA to make the Torrent SSL plugin work.

Apparently, the google checks do not find all the `bad` dudes since I still find funny executables and scripts served instead of torrents from some of the web interfaces to the torrent trackers while not listed as `bad` by the google safe browsing.

I am not sure if it is due to rogue tracker operators, compromised trackers, or Man In The Middle attacks to the trackers ' users from third parties. So just be a little careful when using the torrent search.



Torrent Search



spectrum ~ 5 GHz - 6 GHz - Byron Athens



The Spectrum from 4,91 GHz - 6,1 GHz in Byron, Athens ~280m altitude.

280m is pretty high for Athens.
Athens is at sea level and most buildings are around 4 floors tall.


I used a 10 dBi omni antenna with 10 degree Vertical and 360 degree Horizontal Beamwidths and best for 5400 - 5850 MHz according the the manufacturer.

The antenna Radiation E and H Planes





Spectrum Usage around 5GHz - 6GHz

It was made with a RouterOS powered machine using the command
/interface wireless spectral-history 5GHz-AP-KAREAS range=4910-6110
where 5GHz-AP-KAREAS is the name of the wireless interface connected to the omni antenna.
The wireless interface is the one coming with the 912 mikrotik boards.



A few pictures from the location --the ipduh AWMN node

You can see Acropolis in this picture




Spectrum Usage 5GHz Athens Byron

winbox on 64b linux debian


"Install" winbox to a 64 bit debian linux using wine.

It should work just fine ( even though I did not try ) in 64b Ubuntu Systems if you replace 'su' with 'sudo -s' in the commands below.

Winbox is a GUI administration Tool for RouterOS routers made by Mikrotik

Wine is a piece of software that enables Windows executables to run on a Linux GNU system.

Install wine and download winbox
$ su
# dpkg --add-architecture i386
# apt-get install wine-bin:i386
# cd /usr/local/bin/
# wget http://download2.mikrotik.com/winbox.exe




Add wined winbox on the Gnome Menus using alacarte --a Gnome menus editor
# apt-get install alacarte
# exit
exit
$ alacarte
add a new item
of Type Application
with a command like the following:
wine /usr/local/bin/winbox.exe
Close --save



winbox 64b debian linux

net-tools vs iproute2

Examples of using net-tools vs using iproute2

The tools are not equivalent and even though many times they appear to achieve the same result do not always arrive there the same way.

2 - Link Layer

Show ARP cache
# arp -an


# ip n


Add a permanent entry in the ARP cache
# arp -s 192.168.167.2 -i eth0 -D eth0 pub


# ip n add 192.168.167.2 lladdr 00:ab:cd:12:34:56 dev eth0 nud permanent


Delete an ARP entry
# arp -i eth0 -d 192.168.167.2


# ip n del 192.168.167.2 dev eth0


Show MAC addresses
# ip m


Add VLAN
# vconfig add eth0 3
# ifconfig eth0.3 192.0.2.8/25


# ip link add link eth0 name eth0.3 type vlan id 
# ip a add 192.0.2.8/25 dev eth0.3


Delete VLAN
# vconfig rem eth0.3


# ip link del eth0.3




3 - IP

Show Information up to Layer 3
# ifconfig


# ip a


Set an IP address
# ifconfig eth0:8 192.0.2.8/25


# ip a add 192.0.2.8/25 dev eth0 label eth0:8


Show default routing table
# route -n


# ip r


Add a default route
# route add default gw 192.0.2.10


# ip route add default via 192.0.2.10


Remove the default gateway
# route del -net 0/0 gw 192.0.2.10


# ip route del default via 192.0.2.10


Add and Remove a route
# route add -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 10.21.241.67
# route del -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 10.21.241.67


# ip route add 10/8 via 10.21.241.67
# ip route del 10/8 via 10.21.241.67


Take down an interface
# ifdown eth0:1


# ip link set eth0:1 down


Bring up an interface
# ifup eth0:1


# ip link set eth0:1 up


If statistics
# netstat -i eth0


# ip -s link


Sockets
# netstat -putano


# ss -patu


Watch for netlink messages.
# ip monitor all




net-tools and iproute2

debian vlan



Debian VLAN notes

Install
# apt-get install vlan


Load the kernel module 8021q
# modprobe 8021q


Load 8021q in every boot
# echo 8021q >> /etc/modules


Add VLAN 40 to eth0 and configure eth0.40
# vconfig add eth0 40
Added VLAN with VID == 40 to IF -:eth0:-
# ifconfig eth0.40 192.0.2.8/25


Show eth0.40 configuration
# ifconfig eth0.4
eth0.40    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 08:00:28:a8:b8:a7  
          inet addr:192.0.2.8  Bcast:192.0.2.127  Mask:255.255.255.128
          inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fea8:b8a7/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:48 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:8642 (8.4 KiB)



proc
# cat /proc/net/vlan/config 
VLAN Dev name  | VLAN ID
Name-Type: VLAN_NAME_TYPE_RAW_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD
eth0.40         | 40 | eth0



#cat /proc/net/vlan/eth0.40
eth0.40  VID: 40   REORDER_HDR: 1  dev->priv_flags: 1
         total frames received         7570
          total bytes received      1553436
      Broadcast/Multicast Rcvd            0

      total frames transmitted         7732
       total bytes transmitted      7692798
Device: eth0
INGRESS priority mappings: 0:0  1:0  2:0  3:0  4:0  5:0  6:0 7:0



Remove VLAN
# vconfig rem eth0.40
Removed VLAN -:eth0.40:-



Permanent Setups
Set VLAN at boot
Stub in /etc/network/interfaces
  

auto eth0.40
iface eth0.40 inet static
address 192.0.2.8
netmask 255.255.255.128
vlan-raw-device eth0


Add VLAN to Bridged Interface
auto br0.3
iface br0.3 inet static
        address 192.0.2.8
        netmask 255.255.255.128
        network 192.0.2.0
        broadcast 192.0.2.127
        pre-up vconfig add br0 3
        post-down vconfig rem br0.3





linux vlan

KVM troubleshoot bridged networking

Troubleshoot KVM bridge networking in Debian

A few notes on something that I was called to help with a few times too-many.



Bridged interfaces stop working for the guest machines out of the 'blue'

Not exactly out of the blue every reaction is caused by an action to paraphrase an old smart dude.

I think that it just happens when an admin who sees too many vnet interfaces not used in anything starts taking them down eg:
# ip link set vnet7 down
thinking that since the guests are using only their bridged interfaces it should not matter
and because 20 vnet(s) 4-5 eth(s) and 4-5 br(s) are far too many to follow


But if the vnet that it is not used is defined on a guests definition ( xml ) then the guest bridged interface does not work either.

Is it a bug or a feature of libvirt?
Anyways, here is how I go about it

# virsh
virsh # list 
 Id Name                 State
----------------------------------

 ...

 7 vm7.meton            running

 ...

Shutdown meton
# destroy vm7.meton
Domain vm7.meton destroyed


Edit the definition for the guest vm7.meton
# edit vm7.meton


Remove the target dev from the interface
<target dev='vnet7'/>
Something like the following is enough
   < interface type='bridge'>
      <mac address='58:54:00:18:c1:67'/>
      <source bridge='br0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x03' function='0x0'/>
    </interface>
Make sure that the MAC address starts with an even number

Redefine the guest vm7.meton
 # define vm7.meton.xml
Domain vm7.meton defined from vm7.meton.xml


Start the guest
virsh # start vm7.meton
Domain vm7.meton started

virsh # quit


which seems to work but it does not
It appears that libvirt ignores target names starting in vnet or vif and
if libvirt does not find any target then creates one starting in vnet.
0ne thing you can do is create interfaces with names that make more sense and let them be
eg:
<target dev='meton'/>




KVM bridged networking troubleshooting

Linux mozilla iceweasel firefox multiple versions multiple profiles simultaneously --Gnome-- --a better way :)

A significant amount of the tiny bit of traffic that this blog gets is due to the Linux Firefox Multiple Versions Multiple Profiles simultaneously recipe.

That means that a bunch of good people may use one of my silly recipes that I stopped using in gnome desktops shortly thereafter I put it here.

This is a short recipe that describes another way to use multiple profiles and multiple versions of mozilla based browsers in gnome desktops. I tested this recipe a few times in debian wheezy with gnome2 --classic.

Install alacarte
$ sudo apt-get install alacarte
Alacarte is a Gnome Menu Editor

Create iceweasel or firefox profiles
$ iceweasel -P
or
$ firefox -P
In case you are using both browsers ( brandings ) any of the above commands should create compatible profiles that may be used by both.

Fireup alacarte
$ alacarte


Create in alacarte menus,submenus whatever ( optional )

Create within alacarte items and put in the command placeholder for every item something like the following
iceweasel -p some_profile_name --no-remote
or
firefox -p some_other_profile_name --no-remote
or
/path/to/some/other/version/of/mozilla/firefox -p yet_another_profile_name --no-remote




Many versions many profiles firefox linux Gnome

Disable NetworkManager Debian

Disable the NetworkManager on a Debian desktop with GUI

why? ...
I think it 's easier to edit the standard files than having to deal with yet another MadManInTheMiddle Madness :)
I am kidding NetworkManager is cool ... but I cannot stand it.

Check NetworkManager Status
# nmcli nm 
RUNNING         STATE           WIFI-HARDWARE   WIFI       WWAN-HARDWARE   WWAN      
running         connected       enabled         enabled    enabled         disabled  
# nmcli dev
DEVICE     TYPE              STATE        
eth0       802-3-ethernet    connected    


Stop Network Manager
# /etc/init.d/network-manager stop
[ ok ] Stopping network connection manager: NetworkManager.


Remove Network Manager init script links
# update-rc.d network-manager remove
update-rc.d: using dependency based boot sequencing


From
# man NetworkManager.conf



[ifupdown]
       This section contains ifupdown-specific options and thus only has effect when using ifupdown plugin.

       managed=false | true
              Controls whether interfaces listed in the 'interfaces' file are managed by NetworkManager.  If set to true, then  interfaces   listed    in  /etc/network/interfaces  are  managed by NetworkManager.  If set to false, then any interface listed in /etc/network/interfaces will be ignored by NetworkManager.


so something like the following should work
# cat /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf 
[main]
plugins=ifupdown,keyfile

[ifupdown]
managed=false



Edit /etc/network/interfaces eg:
# cat /etc/network/interfaces 
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto eth0
allow-hotplug eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 10.2.24.50
netmask 255.255.255.128
gateway 10.2.24.125



Set nameserver
# echo "nameserver 10.2.24.4" > /etc/resolv.conf


Restart networking
# /etc/init.d/networking restart
[warn] Running /etc/init.d/networking restart is deprecated because it may not re-enable some interfaces ... (warning).
[ ok ] Reconfiguring network interfaces...done.


and check with
# ifconfig


Restart the system to check
# shutdown -r now


OK, it works.



Disable the NetworkManager in Debian

KVM NATed guest debian

KVM NAT on debian wheezy

Check the default host-guest network configuration
# cat /etc/libvirt/qemu/networks/default.xml 
<network>
  <name>default
  <bridge name="virbr0" />
  <forward/>
  <ip address="192.168.122.1" netmask="255.255.255.0">
    <dhcp>
      <range start="192.168.122.2" end="192.168.122.254" />
    </dhcp>
  </ip>
</network>


Check virtual networks status
# virsh net-list --all
Name                 State      Autostart
-----------------------------------------
default              inactive   no        



Set the default virtual network to Autostart
# virsh net-autostart default


Start the default virtual network
# virsh net-start default


Check virtual network status again
# virsh net-list --all
Name                 State      Autostart
-----------------------------------------
default              active     yes       

# ifconfig virbr0
virbr0    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 22:ca:fc:33:e4:67  
          inet addr:192.168.122.1  Bcast:192.168.122.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          UP BROADCAST MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

# brctl show
bridge name bridge id  STP enabled interfaces
virbr0  8000.000000000000 yes  



Check if IP forwarding is enabled
# cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward 
1
If not enable it permanently in /etc/sysctl.conf

Install guest, eg:
# virt-install --connect qemu:///system -n vm3.onemore -r 1024 -vcpus=1 --disk path=/home/vm/vm3.onemore.qcow2,size=2 -c /iso/debian-7.2.0-amd64-netinst.iso --vnc --noautoconsole --description vm3_onemore --network=network:default --hvm
more at debian KVM notes

Set iptables masquerade
you don't have to :)
# iptables -L -t nat
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
MASQUERADE  tcp  --  192.168.122.0/24    !192.168.122.0/24     masq ports: 1024-65535
MASQUERADE  udp  --  192.168.122.0/24    !192.168.122.0/24     masq ports: 1024-65535
MASQUERADE  all  --  192.168.122.0/24    !192.168.122.0/24    

libvirt does it for you

Configure addressing etc in the virtual network
you don 't have to
tcp        0      0 192.168.122.1:53        0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      21648/dnsmasq   
udp        0      0 192.168.122.1:53        0.0.0.0:*                           21648/dnsmasq   
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:67              0.0.0.0:*                           21648/dnsmasq   
libvirt does it for you



KVM NAT

kvm debian add ram

Change the RAM availabe to a KVM guest VM on debian GNU linux

Fireup virsh and Shutdown the guest VM vm8
$ su
# virsh
virsh# shutdown vm8


See details for guest VM vm8
virsh # dominfo vm8
Id:             -
Name:           vm8
UUID:           66952c82-9e92-17fe-eeca-839476336f36
OS Type:        hvm
State:          shut off
CPU(s):         2
Max memory:     262144 kB
Used memory:    262144 kB
Persistent:     yes
Autostart:      disable


Exit virsh
virsh# quit 


Backup the xml that defines the guest vm8
# cd /etc/libvirt/qemu/
# stor vm8.xml
devz:The directory ./stor does not exist! I will create it.
devz:vm8.xml is at ./stor/vm8.xml.0
I use devz ( it just creates a ./stor directory and saves a copy of vm8.xml in /etc/libvirt/qemu/stor/vm8.xml.0 )

I will change all the memory tags
# grep -i memory vm8.xml 
  262144
  262144
# vi vm8.xml
# grep -i memory vm8.xml 
  512000
  512000


Re-define , check , and start the vm8 guest with virsh
# virsh
virsh # define /etc/libvirt/qemu/vm8.xml
Domain vm8 defined from /etc/libvirt/qemu/vm8.xml
 virsh # dominfo vm8
Id:             -
Name:           vm8
UUID:           66952c82-9e92-17fe-eeca-839476336f36
OS Type:        hvm
State:          shut off
CPU(s):         2
Max memory:     512000 kB
Used memory:    512000 kB
Persistent:     yes
Autostart:      disable

virsh # start vm8
Domain vm8 started


done

set the guest VM to autostart and recheck
virsh # autostart vm8
Domain vm8_btcd marked as autostarted

virsh # dominfo vm8
Id:             9
Name:           vm8
UUID:           66952c82-9e92-17fe-eeca-839476336f36
OS Type:        hvm
State:          running
CPU(s):         2
CPU time:       16.6s
Max memory:     512000 kB
Used memory:    512000 kB
Persistent:     yes
Autostart:      enable

virsh # quit





KVM debian change definition --add RAM



bitcoind debian

Get and Check Checksum
# wget https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.9.1/bitcoin-0.9.1-linux.tar.gz
# chksum=`sha256sum bitcoin-0.9.1-linux.tar.gz | cut -d ' ' -f 1`;
# if [ $chksum == "3fabc1c629007b465a278525883663d41a2ba62699f2773536a8bf59ca210425" ]; then echo 'Checksum OK';fi
Checksum OK




Install Prerequisites
# echo "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian oldstable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
# apt-get update
# apt-get install build-essential libtool autotools-dev autoconf libssl-dev libdb4.8-dev libdb4.8++-dev libboost-all-dev libprotobuf-dev protobuf-compiler pkg-config




Build
# cd bitcoin-0.9.1-linux/src/
# tar xvzf bitcoin-0.9.1.tar.gz
# cd bitcoin-0.9.1/
# ./configure --enable-hardening --disable-wallet --disable-ipv6
# make
# cp src/bitcoind /usr/local/bin
# cp src/bitcoin-cli /usr/local/bin/



If you have the blockchain copy blocks and chainstate to your ~/.bitcoin

Set a .bitcoin/bitcoin.conf eg:
server=1
rpcuser=ulyseus
rpcpassword=doNOTUSEthisPassword
rpcallowip=192.0.2.*
daemon=1
txindex=1



If you copied the blockchain --replaced the ~/.bitcoin/blocks and ~/.bitcoin/chainstate directories start bitcoind with --reindex
$ bitcoind --reindex


else
$ bitcoind


check
$ bitcoind getinfo
{
    "version" : 90100,
    "protocolversion" : 70002,
    "blocks" : 146049,
    "timeoffset" : -73,
    "connections" : 8,
    "proxy" : "",
    "difficulty" : 1755425.32032870,
    "testnet" : false,
    "errors" : ""
}

Great, around 15K more blocks to be up to date

spamblog

I put together a semi-automated spamlog because spam these days is hilarious.



spamlog.ipduh.com

debian wheezy install bitcoin

Install bitcoin 0.9.1 from sources on debian wheezy

The system
$ cat /etc/issue /etc/debian_version;uname -a
Debian GNU/Linux 7 \n \l

7.5
Linux testin 3.2.0-4-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.2.57-3 x86_64 GNU/Linux



Get bitcoin 0.9.1 or the latest version of bitcoin from bitcoin.org or github
$ su
# cd /usr/local/src
# wget https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.9.1/bitcoin-0.9.1-linux.tar.gz


Check, eg:
# chksum=`sha256sum bitcoin-0.9.1-linux.tar.gz | cut -d ' ' -f 1`;
# if [ $chksum == "3fabc1c629007b465a278525883663d41a2ba62699f2773536a8bf59ca210425" ]; then echo 'Checksum OK';fi
Checksum OK


Ungunzip and Untar
# tar xvzf bitcoin-0.9.1-linux.tar.gz


Install Prerequisites
# apt-get install build-essential libtool autotools-dev autoconf libssl-dev


Only db4.8-util from db4.8 (Berkley DB) is in stable wheezy now
We need to add an oldstable repository to /etc/apt/sources eg
# echo "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian oldstable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
Update the system sources
# apt-get update
Install db4.8
# apt-get install libdb4.8-dev libdb4.8++-dev


Install libboost, qt4 ,libqrencode and pkg-config
# apt-get install libboost-all-dev libqt4-dev libprotobuf-dev protobuf-compiler pkg-config libqrencode-dev libqrencode3 


Compile and install
# cd bitcoin-0.9.1-linux/src/
# tar xvzf bitcoin-0.9.1.tar.gz
# cd bitcoin-0.9.1
# ./configure --enable-hardening
# make
# cp src/bitcoind /usr/local/bin
# cp src/qt/bitcoin-qt /usr/local/bin/
# cp src/bitcoin-cli /usr/local/bin/
I think that enable-hardening is the default though ...

If you want to set up a wallet for first time
# exit
$ bitcoin-qt
This will take a while

If you want to move your keys aka wallet from another full node just copy your other ~/.bitcoin directory along with your wallet.dat to this system.

There is a good chance you will have to delete the logs,blocks,chainstate, and keys created when you tried to see if bitcoin-qt worked.

If so replace wallet.dat , blocks , and chainstate , remove the logs fireup bitcoin-qt and and wait a couple of hours for "Reindexing blocks on disk..."
eg.
$ rm ./bitcoin/blocks
$ rm ./bitcoin/chainstate
$ rm ./bitcoin/db.log
$ rm ./bitcoin/debug.log
$ mv dot-bitcoin-back/block ./bitcoin
$ mv dot-bitcoin-back/chainstate ./bitcoin
$ mv dot-bitcoin-back/wallet.dat ./bitcoin
$ bitcoin-qt






http://alog.ipduh.com/2014/05/debian-wheezy-install-bitcoin.html


tankos v4 better video

I still suck in making videos, but the following video is a bit better than the first tankos video ...



Tankos --the robot-- is made using an Arduino Uno with an ATMega328P DIP MCU programmed in C using the Atmel Studio instead the Arduino IDE and C++. Since the last video I have been adding and removing stuff and code all the time. I will release the code once you can look at it without hurting your eyes :)



http://alog.ipduh.com/2014/05/tankos-v4-better-video.html

Install litecoin debian wheezy

Install litecoin -- litecoin-qt -- on debian wheezy from sources

Get litecoin
$ su
# cd /usr/local/src
# apt-get install git
# git clone https://github.com/litecoin-project/litecoin.git


Install Prerequisites
# apt-get install build-essential libtool autotools-dev autoconf libssl-dev
# apt-get install qt4-qmake libqt4-dev libboost-dev libboost-system-dev libboost-filesystem-dev libboost-program-options-dev libboost-thread-dev libminiupnpc-dev
Install Berkley DB db4.8
# echo "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian oldstable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
# apt-get update
# apt-get install libdb4.8-dev libdb4.8++-dev


Build litecoin
# cd litecoin
# qmake
# make
# cp litecoin-qt /usr/local/bin/


Start litecoin-qt
# exit
$ litecoin-qt




debian wheezy virtualbox guest additions

A quick note on the debian packets needed to intstall the virtualbox guest additions.

The system is a ...
$ cat /etc/issue /etc/debian_version;uname -a
Debian GNU/Linux 7 \n \l

7.5
Linux testin 3.2.0-4-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.2.57-3 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Desktop ...

# apt-get install virtualbox-guest-x11 virtualbox-guest-utils virtualbox-guest-dkms



http://alog.ipduh.com/2014/05/debian-wheezy-virtualbox-guest-additions.html

windows networking

Basic Windows Networking ...

yeah, I know :) ... but I had to refurbish these things ...

You may need to run the cmd shell "as Administrator" even if you are logged in as one

Show Interface Configuration
ipconfig /all
or
netsh interface ip show config


Configure-Set a Static Interface
Set "static" IP
netsh interface ip set address name="Local Area Connection" source=static addr=10.21.241.51 mask=255.255.255.128  gateway=10.21.241.1 gwmetric=10
Set "static" DNS
netsh interface ip set dns "Local Area Connection" static 10.21.241.1 primary


Configure-Set an Interface to get IPv4 and DNS cache from a DHCP server
netsh interface ip set address name="Local Area Connection" source=dhcp
netsh interface ip set dns name="Local Area Connection" source=dhcp
Release IP set by the DHCP server
ipconfig /release
Renew-Ask again IPv4 from the DHCP server
ipconfig /renew


Routing

Print the interfaces list and the routing table(s)
route print


Print Routes with star *
eg default:
route print 0*
eg this:
route print 127*


Add a Route
route add 10.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 10.21.241.68 metric 30 if 2
metric and if are set to default eg
route add 10.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 10.21.241.68
would have the same effective result in most cases

Remove a Route
route delete 10.0.0.0


Add a Windows "Persistent" Route
route add 10.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 10.21.241.68 -p
or
route add 10.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 10.21.241.68 metric 30 if 2 -p
In persistent routes, when not explicitly set, the metric is set to 1
Persistent Routes are stored in the registry under the following key
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip \Parameters\PersistentRoutes in windows XP PRO, 2003 , 2008 and windows 7


Delete a Windows "Persistent" Route
route delete 10.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 10.21.241.68 -p
or delete the registry under the following key
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip \Parameters\PersistentRoutes



Display the local DNS cache
ipconfig /displaydns


Empty-Clear the local DNS cache
ipconfig /flushdns


Export Network Settings to a script
netsh -c interface dump > network-setup-0.txt


Import Network Setting from a script
netsh -f network-setup-0.txt


ARP cache

Show ARP cache table(s)
arp -a


Delete an ARP cache entry
eg delete the IP-to-MAC entry for 10.21.241.67
arp -d 10.21.241.67


Manipulate the ARP cache
eg add-set a static MAC for an IP address in the LAN
arp -s 10.21.241.10 80-71-bc-ab-cd-ef


Netstat - Show Ethernet statistics
netstat -e


Netstat - Show active IP/TCP connections and the TCP | UDP ports in which the system listens for connections (-a) and the PID (-o) without resolving names(-n)
netstat -aon


Netstat - Show Statistics by Protocol
netstat -s


You may add an interval in seconds to netstat eg
netstat -aon 5
prints netstat -aon every 5 seconds

Traceroute - Tracert in Windows
 tracert www.awmn

Tracing route to srv1.awmn [10.19.143.13]
over a maximum of 30 hops:

  1    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms  router.01.01433-2.ipduh.awmn [10.21.241.67]
  2     1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms  router.04.04711.ipduh.awmn [10.21.241.68]
  3     1 ms     1 ms     1 ms  gw-ipduh.gfan2.awmn [10.21.241.141]
  4     1 ms     1 ms     1 ms  mt1.gfan2.awmn [10.3.37.1]
  5     4 ms     5 ms     2 ms  gw-gfan2.f-dc2.awmn [10.3.37.92]
  6     3 ms     2 ms     3 ms  srv1.awmn [10.19.143.13]

Trace complete.


You may use the -d flag to not resolve IP names
tracert -d www.awmn


Ping
ping www.awmn

Pinging srv1.awmn [10.19.143.13] with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 10.19.143.13: bytes=32 time=3ms TTL=60
Reply from 10.19.143.13: bytes=32 time=4ms TTL=60
Reply from 10.19.143.13: bytes=32 time=3ms TTL=60
Reply from 10.19.143.13: bytes=32 time=3ms TTL=60

Ping statistics for 10.19.143.13:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 3ms, Maximum = 4ms, Average = 3ms
By default the windows ping does three ICMP echo requests
To ping a host until stopped with CTRL-C you may use
ping 10.19.143.13 -t




NSLookup - DNS troubleshooting

Resolve a DNS name in your Default Caching DNS server
nslookup.exe ipduh.com
Server:         ipduh.ipduh.awmn
Address:        10.21.241.4#53

Non-authoritative answer:
Name:   ipduh.com
Address: 85.25.242.245



Resolve a DNS name in a user defined DNS Caching DNS server
C:\Windows\system32>nslookup
> server 8.8.8.8
Default Server:  [8.8.8.8]
Address:  8.8.8.8

> ipduh.com
Server:  [8.8.8.8]
Address:  8.8.8.8

Non-authoritative answer:
Name:    ipduh.com
Addresses:  2001:470:1f0a:2e2:da::
          85.25.242.245

>
Asking 8.8.8.8 to resolve ipduh.com



Links:
Technet Manage routes
Technet Using Netsh
Technet Netstat




http://alog.ipduh.com/2014/05/windows-networking.html

install litecoin binary debian wheezy

Install litecoin ( litecoin-qt and litecoind binaries ) in debian wheezy

Get them
$ su
# cd /usr/local/bin
# wget https://download.litecoin.org/litecoin-0.8.7.1/linux/litecoin-0.8.7.1-linux.tar.xz


Get asc
# wget https://download.litecoin.org/litecoin-0.8.7.1/linux/litecoin-0.8.7.1-linux.tar.xz.asc


Get PGP key
# gpg --recv-key C37E4723969276F5 --keyserver pgp.mit.edu
...
gpg: requesting key 969276F5 from hkp server keys.gnupg.net
...
gpg: key 969276F5: public key "Litecoin Dev Team (Build Signing Key June 2013) " imported
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1  (RSA: 1)



Check key fingerprint again
# gpg --fingerprint C37E4723969276F5
pub   4096R/969276F5 2013-06-18
      Key fingerprint = DC38 0DA4 3082 F163 78C9  7414 C37E 4723 9692 76F5
uid                  Litecoin Dev Team (Build Signing Key June 2013) 
sub   4096R/667A8C2A 2013-06-18


Verify
# gpg --verify litecoin-0.8.7.1-linux.tar.xz.asc 
gpg: Signature made Sat 19 Apr 2014 08:11:44 AM EDT using RSA key ID 969276F5
gpg: Good signature from "Litecoin Dev Team (Build Signing Key June 2013) "
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: DC38 0DA4 3082 F163 78C9  7414 C37E 4723 9692 76F5
it's OK, I did not sign their key ...
even if I had, I am not putting this piece of software on the same machine that I keep PGP keys ...

Dexz and Untar
# xz -d litecoin-0.8.7.1-linux.tar.xz
# tar xvf litecoin-0.8.7.1-linux.tar


Install Prerequisites
# apt-get install build-essential libtool autotools-dev autoconf libssl-dev
# apt-get install qt4-qmake libqt4-dev libboost-dev libboost-system-dev libboost-filesystem-dev libboost-program-options-dev libboost-thread-dev libminiupnpc-dev
Install Berkley DB db4.8
# echo "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian oldstable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
# apt-get update
# apt-get install libdb4.8-dev libdb4.8++-dev


Put appropriate executables --according to your PC architecture-- in your path
eg:
# cp litecoin-0.8.7.1-linux/bin/64/litecoin* .


Fireup litecoin-qt or litecoind
# exit
$ litecoin-qt




Apache ... Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name





# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
[....] Restarting web server: apache2apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1 for ServerName
 ... waiting apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1 for ServerName
. ok 




Add SeverName definition in the apache 2 configuration eg.
# echo 'ServerName "conon"' >> /etc/apache2/apache2.conf 
# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
[ ok ] Restarting web server: apache2 ... waiting .
#